Scientists crack gene secret that lets poppies make morphine

LONDON, (Reuters) – Scientists have identified a key gene used by poppies to make morphine, paving the way for better methods of producing the medically important drug, potentially without the need for cultivating poppy fields.

20150626poppiesThe latest finding follows recent success in engineering brewer’s yeast to synthesise opiates such as morphine and codeine from a common sugar, boosting the prospect of “home-brew” drug supply.

But whether making morphine in bubbling vats of yeast will be commercially viable — either for drug companies or criminal gangs — is far from certain, since poppies are very efficient natural factories.

“Poppies are not going to be displaced overnight by any stretch of the imagination,” said Ian Graham, a professor at the University of York, who worked on the latest gene discovery.

While extracting opiates from genetically engineered yeast is now a real possibility, he sees more immediate benefits from applying the latest knowledge to developing better poppy plants.

“Having our hands on this gene allows us to develop molecular breeding approaches to creating bespoke poppy varieties that make different compounds,” he told Reuters.

That could lead to agricultural production of drugs such as noscapine, a cough-suppressant that may also fight cancer, as well as improved plant strains with higher yields of morphine.

The University of York team worked on the project with scientists from GlaxoSmithKline. The drugmaker has long been a major supplier of opiates but agreed in March to sell its Australian-based business to India’s Sun Pharmaceutical Industries.

 

$12 BILLION SALES

For centuries, opiates have been the go-to drugs for pain relief and they remain the most potent treatments for severe pain, generating global prescription sales of around $12 billion annually.

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